What Now? Super Fantastic Giveaway!!

This is kinda funny.

I’m sitting here in my Psychoanalytical Criticism class (where I usually write my weekly blog post for this class hehe) and my fingers are itching to write in my blog despite the class requirements being fulfilled.

This is great.

This post has been edited.

So in honor of my blogging class finishing, I’m going to include the giveaway that I featured on my Instagram account here so that more people may enter. Because really, what is a better way to conclude a semester spent talking about the importance of YA books than to give YA books away?


So here is what you have to do to enter #MCGIVEAWAY and win Rick Yancey’s The 5th Wave, Sarah J. Maas’s A Court of Thorns and Roses, and Mary E. Pearson’s The Kiss of Deception.

1 – Head on over to my Instagram account @mackenzie_croft and like the photo.

2 – Follow my account.

3 – Tell me in the comment section of my Instagram account what your favourite book EVER is.

Because I am a poor university student I am only shipping to Canada and the United States. I’ll be picking a winner on April 17th, so impress me with your comment if you want to win three AMAZING books.

Until next time,

Happy reading. 🙂


Happy World Book Day!

In honor of World Book Day, I’ve included some of my favourite bookish photos. On a day like today, go home, make a cup of tea, curl up in bed and open your favourite book.

“If the book you want to read hasn’t been written, you must write it” – Toni Morrison


Canadian Author Tim Wynne-Jones on Gun Violence

While thinking of what to write on for this week’s post, I looked to one of my old blogs where I wrote more colloquially on young adult literature because I wasn’t being marked on it. From there I reintroduced myself to the lovely Tim Wynne-Jones.

Tim Wynne Jones Author Portrait
Cute, right?

Tim Wynne-Jones is a Canadian author who has written more than 20 novels within the genres of adult to young adult to children’s lit. The one that I am most interested and am going to speak on today is a YA novel titled Blink & Caution and features two runaway children in Toronto. The synopsis of Blink & Caution according to Wynne-Jones’s website is as follows:

Two street kids get tangled in a plot over their heads — and risk an unexpected connection — in this heart-pounding thriller by Tim Wynne-Jones.

Boy, did you get off on the wrong floor, Blink. All you wanted was to steal some breakfast for your empty belly, but instead you stumbled on a fake kidnapping and a cell phone dropped by an “abducted” CEO, giving you a link to his perfect blonde daughter. Now you’re on the run, but it’s OK as long as you are smart enough to stay in the game and keep Captain Panic locked in his hold.

Enter a girl named Caution. As in “Caution: Toxic.” As in “Caution: Watch Your Step.” She’s also on the run from a skeezy drug-dealer boyfriend and from a night- mare in her past that won’t let her go. When she spies Blink at the bus station, Caution can see he’s an easy mark. But there’s something about this naive, skinny street punk, whom she only wanted to rob, that tugs at her heart, a heart she thought deserved not to feel.

Charged with suspense and intrigue, this taut novel trails two deeply compelling characters as they forge a blackmail scheme that is foolhardy at best, disastrous at worst — along with a fated, tender partnership that will offer them each a rare chance for redemption. (TimWynne-Jones.com)

(From my instagram @mackenzie_croft)

Throughout Blink & Caution the topic of gun use and gun violence is heavily situated within the protagonist and antagonist’s actions. So not to spoil the character development of Caution (the female protagonist), I will only say that Caution is plagued by the horrible guilt that she is responsible for the death of her brother in a freak gun accident. This role she plays in her brothers death transcends into dictating every move she will make throughout the duration of the story.  In the Afterword, Wynne-Jones writes of the real life happening that inspired the  motivations behind Caution’s running away from home.


While I agree with Tim Wynne-Jones in that guns kill people and help people kill other people, I want to know the opinions of my readers. In the comments below, what is the importance of gun violence representation within literature? Is it people or guns who kill? One of the most interesting pieces of writing information that I have heard came from Veronica Roth who in turn was told so by her editor. The advice was that a gun should not be in a scene of writing unless it is going to be shot. What does this say about the inevitability of violence when there is gun participation in literature and in common society?

A somewhat structured rant on Kendall & Kylie Jenner’s YA novel

This is me giving a half-assed apology ahead of time if I offend anyone who is a fan of the Kardashian/Jenner clan.

I follow a lot of YA authors on twitter. One of those said authors is NYT bestseller Ransom Riggs, the writer behind the Miss Peregrines Home for Peculiar Children trilogy. As per usual, because I couldn’t respect myself as a reader if I didn’t attempt the expand the young adult community, here is what his books look like if you happen upon them while shopping.

This fantasy/contemporary-ish trilogy follows a young male protagonist who, after a family tragedy, travels to a Welsh Island and discovers an orphanage of children with peculiar abilities. It is a beautifully illustrated book; all the strange photographs in the book are part of Riggs own collection and are completely unedited as that they are products of vintage camera malfunctions and the sort. Also, Miss Peregrine has been slotted for a December 2016 cinematic release! It is to be directed by Tim Burton and features actors Eva Green (Penny Dreadful), Samuel L. Jackson (The Avengers), Allison Janney (The West Wing), Asa Butterfield (The Boy in the Striped Pajamas), and Dame Judi Dench (Skyfall).

So, this Ransom Riggs guy (who I met and signed my book at a author meet & greet) tweeted out about the release of Kendall and Kylie Jenner’s YA novel Rebels: City of Indra: The Story of Lex and Livia. If you have an IN in the YA community, you’ll know why his tweet is so funny. Either way, I will supply the backstory here.


Now, what exactly is the “Kardashian” that Riggs talks on being on the “Shatter Me HB?”.

Ransom Riggs is married to fellow YA author Tahereh Mafi. She is the writer behind the NYT bestselling Shatter Me trilogy (optioned by ABC to become a television series), and her dystopian storyline features a Rogue like protagonist named Juliette who has been locked in an insane asylum for her incredible ability; anyone who touches her dies. The reason Riggs talks about Kendall and Kylie’s novel being revenge is because the model on the cover of the initial printing of Shatter Me is curiously quite Kardashian/Jenner looking…


Now you get the joke.

All kidding aside, I do have some issues with the Kendall and Kylie novel. My initial issue is that the the creativity surrounding the story is limited and the plot is predictable. The book features the protagonists Lex and Livia and obviously this meant to fictionally mirror the lives of the Jenner sisters. While I researched the book I found on two popular book publicizing platforms, Goodreads and Amazon, the synopsis of the story was the same;

Kendall and Kylie Jenner, stars on the hit reality show Keeping Up with the Kardashians, present their debut novel—a thrilling dystopian story about two super-powered girls who embark on a journey together.
Two cities… Two girls… A shared destiny…
In a world of the far future, the great city of Indra has two faces: a beautiful paradise floating high in the sky, and a nightmare world of poverty carved into tunnels beneath the surface of the earth.
Kendall and Kylie Jenner, the youngest sisters in the Kardashian dynasty, have written a gripping tale of air, fire, and a bond of blood (Goodreads).

The potential reader (and buyer) is given little information about the protagonists within the story and what type of “journey” is embarked upon. Instead, the book is primarily pitched through the Jenner sisters reality television participation, a role that arguably is circumstantial. Further, the Jenner girls did not actually write the novel. The novel was actually written by ghost writer Maya Sloan, she who was provided a 2 page outline by the Jenners for creative inspiration.

I feel that by putting the Jenner name on Rebels: City of Indra, the girls have discredited the incredible work that goes into writing a novel. I feel that they have piggy backed upon the talents of others and taken claim to something that they only played a small part in. Part of the press for the book involved a Q&A with fans, one of which asked the girls about their writing process and if they wrote each chapter separately or together, to which Kylie answered “all together” (US Weekly). If you are looking for more information on Maya Sloan (who actually is a successful author), Kendall and Kylie Jenner, or the novel Rebels: City of Indra, all you have to do it type it into google. I promise you’ll be awarded with a myraid of perspectives and opinions, but please keep in mind that theses are my own thoughts on the matter and you are welcome to not share them.

I believe that Rebels: City of IndraThe Story of Lex and Livia, is a product of pure narcissism. While I don’t discredit the two for encouraging some of their young fans to perhaps become interested in reading (which is never ever a bad thing) I do discredit them in the sense that the Jenner girls can now add the title “author” to their retinue of successes when they did not truly author or write the book in the slightest. My only consolation in all of this is that the book did poorly, rating 1.9/5 according to Barnes & Nobel. (Barnes&Nobel 2016).

So! What do you think? How do you feel about celebrities getting book deals compared to the authors who write to live? Do you think pieces of fiction written by celebrities are easier to criticize as opposed to autobiographies and memoirs written by celebrities? Would you read Rebels: City of Indra: The Story of Lex and Livia? Let me know in the comments below!

A Series of Unfortunate Fortunes

This week I’m throwing it back to an article that popped up on my Facebook last September. This article, written and published by the New York Times website, read with the headline “Lemony Snicket, the Author, and His Wife Donate $1 Million to Planned Parenthood”. As some YA enthuasists may know, Lemony Snicket is the pen name (pseudonym) for author Daniel Handler’s A Series of Unfortunate Events. Although I’m sure no one could forget these lovely (read miserable) books, to jog your memory this is what they look like.


…and these are the poor miserable wretches who the story features.

The Baudelaire orphans, Violet, Sunny, and Klaus.

If you haven’t already read them, go do it… but grab a box of donuts first because these books are hard on the emotions (go ahead, eat your feelings).

Back to the NYT article. Daniel Handler and his wife Lisa Brown released their public support of Planned Parenthood by tweeting it to their followers.

daniel handler

So, why is this important?

In recent American politics, Congressional Republicans have made a push to defund Planned Parenthood by accusing the health clinic of selling fetus tissue to science and research centers. While these claims are largely skeptical, “offensive and categorically untrue” in the words of Planned Parenthood president Cecile Richards, these claims are besides the point. Planned Parenthood supplies women all over America with health services that they could otherwise not afford. By defunding Planned Parenthood, the republican party is defunding the basic human right for a woman to govern her own body. Basically, the defunding of Planned Parenthood in cause of outrageous rumors and the projection of religious ideals is a way of declaring that a woman’s opinion regarding her own body is invalid.

When young readers see the decisions made by the authors of their favourite books, they are influenced by them. Daniel Handler and his wife have just inspired the masses of YA readers, and made clear his stance on the equality of healthcare. No longer should the unfortunate events of fiction be a reality within the lives of the reader. With help from authors like Daniel Handler, the series of unfortunate events that have befallen Planned Parenthood may soon be a thing of fiction.


“One day YA authors are going to start acting like YA heroines, & then shit is going to get set on fire” – The rape culture scandal at the University of Ottawa

Alright, so.

I’m going to start my second post off with a trigger warning, because today I’m going to talk about rape culture.

Some of my friends at Brock know that I’m relatively new to this university, I only started here in the third year of my undergrad. The first two years of my university experience were spent in the capital of Canada at the  University of Ottawa. While there, an incident occurred involving the president of the student federation, Anne Marie Roy, and five male members of prominence within the federation. A conversation was leaked onto social media involving the aforementioned five male student federation members with Anne Marie at the topic of their Facebook messenger conversation. The content revolved around graphic sexual descriptions of what they wanted to do to her, that which included a rape “joke” (read threat).

The reason this is so important to talk about is because Anne Marie was in a position of power over these men. It is unarguable that her position of power is what encouraged one of the men to say of her that “someone should punish her with their shaft”. Now, what really gets my blood boiling here, is that despite her accomplishments, despite her intelligence or her drive or her character, Anne Marie was objectified, threatened, and a figure of sexual entertainment for these young men. The way they casually talk about forcing her to perform sexual favors for them represents a sense of entitlement towards her physical body and person. I’ll link the article below for readers wanting more information on the actual article that sparked such a public outrage. Fortunately, the men who spoke so disgustingly and wantonly of Anne Marie were removed from the federation and an investigation involving the police was prompted.

Rape Culture at the University of Ottawa

So what does this mean in the grand scheme of things, and what does this piece of information have to do with YA lit?

The comments made by the men are a small part of the larger sphere of rape culture. Rape culture, in case you didn’t know, is a culture that blames the victims of sexual assault and normalizes sexual violence. One of the biggest examples of rape culture in YA is the attempted rape of the character Tris in Veronica Roth’s Divergent. I mentioned this in my first post, but I’ll summarize it again here. Tris, who excelled in her training program within her faction of Dauntless, survived a attempted rape by the some of her fellow male trainees. What inspired this instance? She was beating them. Sexual assault has too quickly become a normalized way to compete and succeed over another person, and its plainly unacceptable.

Now, for the meaning of the title of this post.

At the same time that this incident happened in Ottawa, I went to twitter to see what my friends and classmates were saying about it. Because I follow a plethora of YA authors, I saw this one tweet from NYT bestselling author Leigh Bardugo. In case anyone is interested, she wrote a kick ass trilogy titled The Grisha Trilogy and they look like this:


This is the twitter conversation that followed:

rape culture

rape culture 2

Now, the reason I brought this to her attention is because sexism and rape culture are closely linked. It is sexism that encourages the culture of rape, where the prosperity of one gender can be halted by the violation of their body.

However, more often than not, YA authors are the champions of equality. They take on the misogyny and sexism and hegemonic masculinity and create characters like Katniss, Hermione, Tris, Alina, and Annabeth. These characters who, throughout their tales, are blazing middle fingers to the sexism within popular social society. While sexism and inequality and rape culture are still grossly relevant today, so does the growing community of YA authors who write characters to combat it. Literature is a place to turn to in times of need, and these authors aren’t talking anyone’s shit, and they aren’t backing down.

Heteronormativity and Homosexuality within Young Adult Literature

To start off my blog, a blog that will undoubtedly praise and worship at the feet of the young adult lit genre, I am writing a disclaimer of sorts. This disclaimer is to recognize that, like all literature, the YA genre does contain flaws. While many authors and pieces of fiction that I will talk on are champions for the minority, the underdog, the relegated, and the marginalized, some authors and works of fiction do contain qualities that discriminate and belittle specific identities.

To demonstrate my awareness and acknowledgment of this, I am including an essay that I wrote for my Women and Gender Studies class on heteronormativity and homosexuality within YA lit; an essay that will include many pieces of lit I loved reading. This is to demonstrate how I recognize and confront all aspects of my favourite genre, and to testify that I am not ignorant of the inequalities within popular culture.

Happy reading and welcome to WHY YA MATTERS!


Literature, and fiction specifically, is a place many people, young and old, retreat to in an effort to escape the trials and taxes of everyday reality. As an ardent reader of the young adult genre of literature and as a student of WGST 1F90, I thought it would be interesting to further study some of my favourite novels and employ what WGST has taught me thus far. In my analysis, I will discuss how the young adult New York Times bestselling novels of Mortal Instruments: The City of Bones, Divergent, and The Hunger Games unwittingly endorse heteronormativity, homophobia and gender conforming behavior through the portrayal of women and the othering of homosexuality. Cassandra Clare, Veronica Roth and Suzanne Collins subliminally supply young adult readers, ages twelve to eighteen (Wendig 2012), with fictional worlds that promote gender roles based primarily in heterosexual identity. While examining the heterosexist protagonist relations, hegemonically masculine societal values and the emphasis placed on gender appropriate behavior, I will argue that these novels perpetuate and present sexual and gender inequality. I look forward to employing pleasure-critique nexus in an effort to recognize how deeply ingrained heterosexism and gender inequity is in pop culture and North American mainstream media.

Heteronormativity as delineated by Mann (2012) is the belief that heterosexual identity is normal, natural, and right. Normativity, defined as the conventional form of association, belonging, and identification, amassed with heterosexual behavior generates an othering in homosexuality. In turn, this expulsion of homosexuality makes way for homophobia; a heterosexual fear of/ discrimination against gay men and lesbian women. Homophobia enforces the idea that people who identify as homosexual are fundamentally different and in some cases sick/mentally unstable because of their violation of heteronormativity (Mann 2012). Mann’s queer feminist theory informs the endorsement of the heteronormativity, homophobia, and gender conforming behavior present in young adult literature through the intersectional chain reaction one concept has with another. The normativity that revolves around heterosexual YA literature is telling of the homophobia they covertly reinforce; the rarity of a YA novel centering in homosexuality is profound in this discussion of heteronormativity. As point of evidence, Cassandra Clare’s (2007) Mortal Instruments: City of Bones contains a passage that champions’ heteronormativity and homophobia;

“Why not?”

“Because I like someone else,” Simon said.

“Okay.” Simon looked faintly greenish, the way he had once when he’d broken his ankle playing soccer in the park and had had to limp home on it. She wondered what on earth about liking someone could possibly have him wound up to such a pitch of anxiety. “You’re not gay, are you?”

Simon’s greenish color deepened. “If I were, I would dress better.” (Clare, 39)

In this interaction, Clary deduces that the only reason Simon could be “faintly greenish” and “wound up to such a pitch of anxiety” is if he was ashamed of his homosexuality. Additionally, Clare writes her character to compare the shame of identifying as homosexual to the physical pain of a broken ankle. In response to this, Garcia (2013) recognizes the “harmful castigation that it is a problem if Simon is gay; it (the passage) reads more like an accusation or a mean spirited joke” (Garcia, 87). Mann outlines in her queer theory the paranoia that heteronormativity and homophobia instigate; research concluded that “fear of being called ‘fag’ in high school looms over nearly all boys and results in compulsive displays of masculinity, aggression, and violence against girls” (Mann 2012). Furthermore, Simon casts his own cliché understanding of what homosexuality exhibits, and claims that if he was gay, he would “dress better,”(Clare, 39) causing readers to believe that if you like men, you’ll miraculously begin to dress in a specific manner. Garcia testifies that heteronormativity is broadened in young adult literature through the “pejorative assumptions about LGBTQI behavior” and in this, challenges the perceptions of homosexuality being “abnormally different” (Garcia 87).

As heteronormativity and homophobia intersect in observation of Clare’s Mortal Instruments: City of Bones, so does heterosexuality and gender conforming/non-conforming behavior in Suzanne Collins The Hunger Games (2008). Kane (2013) establishes that gender non-conforming/conforming behavior is based on the actions and decisions made which coincide with what is socially viewed as appropriately acceptable, evidentially in cause of gender being culturally constructed. Moreover, Messner (2013) assists in clarifying the subject of gender behavior and performance with his proposal that “each of us actively scripted our own sexual and gender performances, but these scripts were constructed within the constraints of a socially organized (institutionalized system of power and pleasure” (Messner, 195). By acknowledging gender performance as being representative of ‘institutionalized systems of power’ it is understood why gender conforming behavior is demanded of the character Katniss.  In Hunger Games, Collin’s heterosexual protagonist Katniss spends more time being groomed and primed for audiences than she is prepared for the carnage she will reap in the arena. She is only praised by Effie when she conforms to her gender, and the majority of their interactions are spent with Effie berating Katniss about her lacking of feminine wiles; her smile, her ability to walk in heels, and her tendency to glare (Collins, 115).  For Effie, it is clear that the stress she contains over Katniss is found in her fear that if she does not act like the lady the Capital (institution of power) demands, she will not receive assistance from sponsors when she enters the bloodbath of the arena because she has not impressed them. The importance in this, is that Katniss’s favorability is dependent upon gender constructions: she is a female, so she must be pretty and banal and submissive. It is a ludacris concept in The Hunger Games because once the tributes are placed in the arena, appropriate gender behaviors are eradicated when they all try to kill one another.

In Roth’s (2011) Divergent, the dystopian city of Chicago is separated into five factions; Amity (the peaceful), Erudite (the intelligent), Candor (the honest), Abnegation (the selfless) and Dauntless (the brave). Characters in the novel are born into their family’s faction, and then on their sixteenth birthday are granted the opportunity to either stay in their faction of birth, or leave and acquire the attributes of a faction of their own choosing. The protagonist of the novel, Tris, decides to leave her original faction and join Dauntless, a faction that is very much exemplar of hegemonic masculinity. Predominantly lead by male figures, the people who belong to Dauntless are defined by characters in the books as “Hellions… pierced, tattooed, and black clothed. Their primary purpose is to guard the fence that surrounds our city” (Roth, 7). Although Roth initially provides her readers with a superficial representation of strength and bravery in the attire of the Dauntless faction, her protagonist quickly learns that her own value will be determined in her ability to physically fight another person. Connell (2013) defines hegemonic masculinity as “a position of cultural authority and leadership (and) an expression of the privilege men collectively have over women” (Connell, 171). Hegemonic masculinity is portrayed in the text through the strength that most men contain over most women; a natural privilege that they possess and in Divergent, exploit. As Roth establishes, the brute strength of a person is determinative of their worth in the faction and as Tris experiences, it is her lack of physical strength that makes her a target of her fellow initiates. In order to evaluate them, the initiates undergo a training regime that mentally assesses their bravery in the face of their deepest fears, and pits them physically against one another.  Tris, primarily ranked lower in the physical aspect of training, succeeds in the simulations that test her mental endurance. However, as Tris surpasses the men in her group she is viewed in direct violation of the concept of the commandments of mars. A behavior that some men exhibit, the commandments of mars subsist off the need to “dominate to control, succeed at any cost, fight the female (and) protect the male image and ego” (J. Janke, personal communication, October 21st, 2014). It is an ideology that takes the power away from one group of people, and gives it to another, assisting in furthering gender inequity and homophobia. The commandments of mars is representative in the behavior of the men who, in an effort to remove Tris from the training program, blindfold and attack her three to one;

“… Then someone grabs me from behind. I start to scream, but a hand claps over my mouth. It smells like soap and it’s big enough to cover the lower half of my face. I thrash but the arms holding me are too strong, and I bite down on one of the fingers….A strip of dark cloth covers my eyes… I struggle to breathe. There are at least two hands on my arms, dragging me forward, and one on my back, shoving me in the same direction, and one in my mouth, keeping the screams in. Three people. My chest hurts. I can’t resist three people on my own… A heavy hand gropes along my chest.

‘You sure you’re sixteen? Doesn’t feel like you’re more than twelve.’

The other boys laugh. ‘Wait I think I found something!’ His hand squeezes me.”(Roth, 277).

In Roth’s text, gender inequity is demonstrated as derivative of the commandments of mars; the men “fight the female” “protect their image and ego” and “succeed at any cost” in the sexual assault and attempted murder of the protagonist. In sexually assaulting her, hegemonic masculinity is found in the privilege that the men feel is their right to take ownership over Tris’s body and touch her without her consent. However, this behavior is not without a toll on the men who exhibit it, and we see an example of this in the desolate demeanor of one of the adversaries who assaulted the protagonist;

“I won’t hurt you. I never wanted to…’ Al covers his face with both hands. ‘I don’t know what’s wrong with me, I… please forgive me, please…’

My Body feels rigid and cold, and I am not angry, I am not hurt, I am nothing.

‘Never come near me again. If you do, I swear to God I will kill you,’ I say. ‘You coward.” (Roth, 300).

While hegemonic masculinity and gender inequity is present in the text, it is also challenged and fought by Roth’s Tris in the agency she reclaims over her own body, much to the delight of a feminist reader.

 Mann’s queer feminist theory advises my thesis because it recognizes the domino effect one concept has with another; heteronormativity clashes with homosexuality and initiates socially appropriate gender behavior. Heteronormativity and non-conforming gender behavior cause homophobia and enforce hegemonic masculinity for fear of social ostracism. When speaking on heteronormativity and homosexuality in YA literature, an important characteristic to note of Clare’s City of Bones, Collins’ The Hunger Games, and Roth’s Divergent is their print to screen adaptations, and how when mainstream media intervened, the slightest reference to homosexuality was removed and ignored in cinematic reproductions. Heteronormativity is perpetuated, as Garcia says, “through suppression of LGBTQI presence within novels” (87), and when this same suppression is applied in wide scale multimillion dollar screen portrayals, the normalizing reach of heterosexuality is extended.  Hall advocates that “the establishment of normalcy (i.e, what is accepted as ‘normal’ through social-and stereo-types is one aspect of the habit of ruling groups… to attempt to fashion the whole of society according to their own world view, value system, sensibility and ideology” (Hall, 229). The ruling group in most cases consists of the white, androcentric, heterosexual people of an elevated class structure, and it is these people who dictate and approve how reproductions will be established, and which identities will be ignored.

The topic of the sexual and gender inequalities in young adult literature is relevant to social change because literature, and art in general, is illustrative of the shared human experience. Art is inspired by the interrelations of all facets of life and humanity, and social change cannot come about unless transformation is made throughout every aspect of the working definition of life. Young adult literature is a source of both safety and pleasure for innumerous people, and written stories stay with a person long after they are read. For social change, literature, as well as people, must become aware and recognizing of the socially constructed gendered spheres that we occupy, in order to begin to step outside of them. Literature holds this responsibility because it is representative of the time and culture in which it was written. Literature and art withstands time, and are beacons of reference to refer to in times of trial. While I believe that authors do not have to contain this social responsibility in their writings, I do believe that in order to be relevant and to contribute to the health of society, all identities, genders, and sexualities must be considered with the appropriate respect and acknowledgement. This is why the topic of heteronormativity and homosexuality in young adult literature is important.